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Our advantages >> 【秘笈】超级实用的汉语语音教学技巧

[secret book] super practical Chinese phonetic teaching skills

Initials teaching


The phonetic teaching of Chinese as a foreign language includes several aspects, as follows:



This time, I will introduce some content of "initial teaching" for your reference. The teaching contents of finals, tone and tone change will be introduced in the future. Please pay attention.


Initials teaching



1. Single consonants


Chinese initials are all made up of single consonants. Although zh, ch and sh are made up of two letters, they are also single consonants.


2. Air supply is the main distinguishing feature


Among the 21 consonant initials, there are 6 pairs of initials with air supply and no air supply as the main characteristics, respectively b/p, d/t, g/k, z/c, zh/ch, j/q, accounting for 57% of the total number of initials.


3. Focus on soft sounds


Among the 21 consonant initials, light consonants account for the majority of the total 17, which are b, p, d, t, g, k, z, c, zh, ch, j, q, f, s, sh, x and h. The voiced sounds are only m, n, l and r. Chinese initials are not characterized by clarity and turbidity.




One, breathing and no breathing teaching


1. Common mistakes of learners:


First, some learners can not hear the difference between the delivery and non-delivery sound, which makes the delivery sound become non-delivery sound.


The other is that some learners can hear and distinguish between the aspirated and non-aspirated sounds, but they cannot pronounce the aspirated sound in place and do not master the pronunciation of the aspirated sound.


2. Teaching methods



Second, "l" and "r" teaching


1. Common mistakes of learners:


Native English learners:


When pronouncing the initial "l", the pronunciation part is always moved, and the muscles around the tongue are too loose, which is easy to pronounce it into the final consonant [l] of "shell".


When they pronounce "r", they often use the "r" in English to replace it. Or it can make people feel that the airflow passes through the articulation area for too long and the friction is too heavy.


Japanese and Korean learners:


It is easy to mix the "l" and "r" sounds or produce a flash sound. This is because they do not have these two sounds in their native language, only the flash sound, so they tend to vibrate their tongue during pronunciation.


2. Teaching methods




Learners mispronounce "l" into "r" because the tip of the tongue is too relaxed when pronouncing "l". Therefore, students should hold the tip of the tongue against the upper tooth when pronouncing "l", and pronounce the final of "l" after a long period of time, such as l--la. Ask the learner to pin the tip of the tongue to the silver of the upper tooth to stop the "r" sound. When making the "r" sound, tell the students to move the tip of the tongue back so that it touches the front of the hard palate.




It refers to the way that a relatively easy sound leads to a relatively difficult sound, which is widely used in phonetic teaching. Japanese and Korean learners often struggle to master the "r" sound. Influenced by their own native language, they often pronounce "r" with flashing sound and vibrate their tongue. However, "r" in Chinese does not vibrate when it is pronounced, which is opposite to "sh" sound. Therefore, "r" is often used in teaching with "sh" sound.



3. Teaching p/f and f/h


1. Common learner mistakes


Japanese and Korean learners tend to pronounce "f" as "p". This is because there is no corresponding sound for the "f" in Korean, which is relatively unfamiliar to them. Native English and Korean speakers tend to pronounce the "h" too far back.


2. Teaching methods


Hyperbole method


For Japanese and Korean learners who are easy to pronounce "f" as "p", exaggerated mouth shape can be used to demonstrate pronunciation for learners to imitate. For example, when pronouncing the initial "f", learners should consciously bite the lower lip with the upper teeth and then slowly rub the lips and teeth apart to produce the "f" sound.


It is not easy for learners to have problems when they pronounce the single "f" sound. What is easy to have problems is that after the combination of "f" and finals, they are easily influenced by their native language habits to pronounce the "p" sound. Therefore, practice combining syllables or words.


Comparative demonstration method


Some learners make it a guttural sound to pronounce the initial "h". Learners should be informed that the pronunciation part of guttural sound [h] is behind the initial of Chinese "h". When pronouncing the initial of Chinese "h", the sound is louder and longer. When you make a guttural sound [h], it is like the sound your throat makes when you breathe. The sound is not loud and cannot be prolonged. Through the comparison of the two pronunciations, learners can master the pronunciation of "h" initial.



Iv. Teaching z/zh/j, c/ch/q, s/sh/x

四、z/zh/j 、c/ch/q、s/sh/x的教学

1. Common learner mistakes


In English, Japanese, Korean and other languages, there is no group of voice after the tip of the tongue; English and Korean native speakers tend to pronounce zh, ch, sh as z, c, s, but not j, q, x. Japanese learners often pronounce zh, ch, sh as j, q, x. Some learners even confuse all three sounds.


2. Teaching methods


Method of hand gestures


Five fingers and close, palm of two hands is opposite, the finger above is slightly curved represent oral cavity palate, before finger, in, hind expresses tooth back respectively, hard palate, soft palate; The lower finger represents the tongue, and the motion of the tongue is indicated by the upward or straight motion of the fingertips. The lower fingers touch different parts of the upper fingers from front to back to indicate different sounds.


In view of the different difficulty of initial pronunciation of the three groups, the teaching generally starts with the relatively simple z group. After learners master the initial pronunciation of z group, they will practice the initial pronunciation of j group and zh group. Through this method, learners can intuitively experience the different parts of three groups of initials, so as to distinguish them.


Bite fingering


The initials of the zh group are used as the initials of the raised tongue. In the process of pronunciation, it is difficult for some learners to raise the tip of the tongue to pronounce correctly. In the face of this phenomenon, bite and fingering can be used for training. The specific method is to extend the index finger into the mouth, against the back of the tip of the tongue, and then gently bite the first joint of the index finger, and then let the students according to the teacher's demonstration pronunciation, imitation practice. When using this method for teaching, teachers should remind students to do a good job of cleaning in advance to avoid the entrance of bacteria.